Winter -Cabbage (in Frost)
Crop rotation is important because different types of plant draw different nutrients from the soil.
A good crop rotation plan will help to limit pests and diseases. Here are some common cycles (in order of planting):
It’s OK to switch from one system to another, and vegetables that don’t match a category (e.g. squash, sweetcorn, spinach) can be fitted in wherever convenient).
Growing many different types of plant close together creates several small natural ecosystems which, in turn, creates habitats for a wide range of creatures. This increases the chances of encouraging natural predators and helps to ensure that no single pest population is large enough to create problems.
Growing different plants together – companion planting – brings other benefits. For example, carrot flies are attracted by the smell of young carrot plants, but if strong-scented herbs or garlic/onions are growing amongst the carrots the carrot fly become confused.
A good approach is to plant some flowering plants between crops. Generally, these will attract hoverfly and ladybirds and occasionally bring further advantages – Cabbage White butterflies prefer to lay their eggs on Nasturtiums rather than cabbage plants, thus providing a natural decoy.
Other parts of the allotment can also support wildlife – log piles provide shelter predatory insects and compost heaps are ideal habitats for beetles and centipedes and provide a warm, safe haven for slow worms and hedgehogs.
Further information is available from the Br6thers web-site - https://sixbrotherspestcontrol.com/garden-pests-natural-guide/)
Allotment plots are an ideal learning environment for children and there are many ways of involving them in the process from planning through planting and harvesting, and then to prepare produce.
The National Allotment Society has come up with the idea of engaging children at this time of year to grow an allotment rainbow. If you need help in thinking of the kinds of plants to provide all of the colours they have the following suggestions:
For more information about involving children on the plot see the allotment gardening web-site: https://www.allotment-garden.org/allotment-information/allotments-children/
Good compost is invaluable.
Compost introduces nutrients to support plant growth. It lightens heavy soils, helps soils to retain moisture, and helps control plant diseases.
Compost falls into two broad categories: garden compost and potting compost.
Garden compost refers to the material that we can all produce when we gather kitchen and garden waste and leave it to decompose. Home-made compost ideally contains equal amounts of green materials (grass cuttings, fruit and vegetable peelings, young plants, animal manure, etc. which have a high nitrogen content) and brown materials (leaves, straw/hay, woody shoots, cardboard and paper).
As the vegetable matter rots it generates heat. The heat accelerates the decomposition process resulting in rich, dark organic matter that can be dug into the soil or applied as a mulch. Adding materials such as nettles, comfrey and urine to compost can also help to accelerate the process. Oxygen is a key element in the decomposition process and garden compost should be periodically turned with a fork to introduce air.
Making compost helps the environment: reducing numbers of bonfires, cutting down on waste, and reducing demand for manufactured products. It can also provide a habitat for hedgehogs, beetles and slow-worms, many of which feed on slugs act as natural pest controllers, reducing the need for chemical pesticides.
Potting compost is the bagged material that we get from garden centres (and The Shed!). Bagged compost is available in several forms to serve specific purpose – multi-purpose compost can be used at all stages in the growing cycle, seed compost is designed to assist germination, ericaceous compost is designed for plants which prefer acid soils, tomatoes and strawberries are planted directly in grow bags. Peat free compost is widely recognised as being more environmentally sustainable than those containing peat.
The purpose of fertilisers is to re-introduce chemicals to the soil that are absorbed by plants as they grow.
The main elements, all of which are available from The Shed, are:
Crop rotation is important because different types of plant draw different nutrients from the soil.
The following table can help you identify which type of fertiliser is needed by which plant (or where symptoms of poor plant development have previously arisen), together with how it can be provided both organically and inorganically.
Manure is a great way of improving soil condition, available from the following local sources...
Autumn is the time to plant green manures. These plants tend to grow quickly and either scavenge nutrients that otherwise might be washed out of the soil or take nitrogen from the atmosphere and transfer it to the soil through their root systems. The roots also improve the structure of the soil, and green manures also prevent weed growth by blocking out light to growing weedlings.
The main types of green manures are listed below:
Dig green manures into the soil in the spring while they are still soft and they add nutrients to the soil and enhance the activity of worms and other wildlife below the surface of the soil. Leave for at least two weeks before planting out crops.
Slugs and snails – these seem to be ever-present but are more mobile in warmer weather, particular after periods of rain. Leaf crops like cabbage and lettuce are favourite targets. Copper rings, crushed eggshells and beer traps are traditional solutions. Conventional alternatives include coffee grounds or bran. Slug nematodes are a natural scientific solution but can be quite expensive and require a combination of warm weather and moisture (which are certainly not guaranteed at this time of year!).
Aphids – will be sucking the sap from many types of fresh edibles now that the early signs of summer. You can squash them with your fingers or plant strong scented plants nearby (e.g. garlic) to deter them. Ladybirds are their natural predators and you can buy ladybird pupae to spread around your plot and will welcome a rich food supply when they hatch.
Asparagus beetle – these visually attractive beetles produce small grubs which can devastate asparagus when it is resting and developing as a fern. The adults can be picked off as they develop. To prevent re-emergence next year, clear away the stems in early winter and burn them (if they are stored the bugs may be able to find shelter).
Soil is a living mixture of diverse organisms and works better when it’s not disrupted. No-dig gardening can bring many benefits to your plot and is gentler on your back than traditional methods of growing vegetables. Nutrient rich materials – compost, manure, etc. – are applied at normal rates but only at the surface of the soil. Worms and other organisms do the work of bringing the nutrients into the ground.
The basic requirements are:
Earthworms, bacteria and fungi, all of which contribute to healthy soil, can be adversely affected by disturbance such as digging and by compacting soil. Most soil life is closest to the surface, and digging can bring poorer quality soil to the surface. Digging can also help seeds from weeds to find ideal conditions for growth.
During warm wet weather everything grows quickly - particularly weeds! In fact, because weeds have evolved to suit local climate and conditions they tend to outgrow whatever we may be trying to cultivate. Each square meter of soil can contain up to 100,000 weed seeds, all competing with our crops for water and nutrients, and providing a haven for slugs, snails and other pests.
The best natural ways to keep them at bay is to hoe regularly in dry weather, hand weed when the soil is moist, don’t allow them to seed, and to apply mulches to suppress growth. Light proof membranes can be used where you are not growing crops and, usually as a last resort, chemical weed killers are available.
The most common weeds are:
Bindweed – one of the most difficult weeds to overcome, it requires regular digging out destruction of every piece of root
Dandelion – remove flower heads before they seed and dig out the tap roots completely when the ground is soft (I’ve known them to grow and flower from just a root that I’d dug out!).
Bramble- highly invasive and can inflict nasty scratches. Dig out their roots completely
Goosegrass (‘sticky weed’) and Common chickweed – low growing weeds that are easily dug out by their roots.
How to keep on top of weeds...
Hoeing – hoeing takes the heads off weeds as soon as they break the surface - if beds need hand weeding then you’ve left it too late!. It’s good to hoe at least twice a month and weekly hoeing is even better. Choose a dry day if possible so that there is less moisture in the ground to allow the weeds to regenerate.
Stop digging – this made be counter-intuitive but digging can help dormant seeds within the soil to start germinating. The growing process is triggered when buried seeds are exposed to light, moisture and/or air.
Mulch – applying organic matter to the surface will bury and weeds or seeds and inhibit their development. It also allows the soil to retain moisture and nutrients allowing the intended fruit and vegetable crops to grow.
Don’t let annual weeds set seeds. Dig out dandelions and other annual weeds before their seed-heads fully develop.
Most of us grow our plants from seed – it can be a challenge but it’s the cheapest and most rewarding method. The following tips can give your plants a head start and valuable extra days’ growth:
Large seeds that are wrinkled (e.g. peas and beans) can benefit from soaking prior to planting.
Growing vegetables in pots can be a good way to minimise weed growth and control plant growth. Pots also make a change from rows of crops providing visual interest to the plot.
Most types of soft fruit and vegetables will grow in plots. Salad leafs and onions, herbs, garlic, tomatoes, potatoes, strawberries, currents and chillies are often grown in pots, and potatoes can be grown in pots or potato bags. Carrots, beetroot and courgettes can also be successfully grown in pots, but seem to be less common (but for no good reason!).
Whatever you decide to grow it’s best to use plants that have been produced to be smaller than usual - dwarf, compact or mini varieties. Some vegetables are not well suited to pots: brassicas; tall growing vegetables such as sweetcorn; and ‘thirsty’ crops.
The key rules are:
The following container depths are suggested in Kay Sexton’s book (“Minding my Peas and Cucumbers”, 2011):